PDA

View Full Version : DotW 13: The F.A.S.T.



ToddG
12-26-2011, 09:45 AM
Please read the rules (http://pistol-forum.com/showthread.php?1837-Drill-of-the-Week) before participating in this thread.

Week 13: The F.A.S.T.
results may be posted until 11:59pm EST on Monday 2-January-2012.

designed by Todd Louis Green
Range: 7yd
Target: 8" circle and 3x5 card (see here (http://pistol-training.com/wp-content/uploads/2007/09/fast-target.pdf) for a downloadable target; this target must be printed on an 8.5x14 "legal" sheet of paper)
Start position: concealed, hands relaxed at sides (see below for alternatives)
Rounds fired: 18

The end of 2011. The beginning of 2012. Lucky number 13... the F.A.S.T.!

Pistol begins with exactly two rounds in the gun. Draw should be from underneath legitimate concealment (see below for alternatives). Arms must be relaxed with hands at your sides (not on the gun).


On the buzzer, draw and fire two rounds at the 3x5 card.
Reload from slidelock/empty gun.
Fire four rounds to the 8" circle.


Repeat for a total of three runs (18 rounds).

Do not fire extra rounds. Shots intended for the 3x5 that hit the 8", or vice versa, count as misses.

Scoring is as follows:
Total time + 2s penalty for each 3x5 shot missed + 1s penalty for each 8" shot missed

The drill is intended to be shot from legitimate concealment or with a duty/retention holster. Even when shot with a duty holster, start position is arms at sides (not "interview" stance). Score is modified as follows based on carry method:


Concealed: no penalty
retention holster with closed (snap or velcro) mag pouches: 0.5 second bonus (subtraction) per 6-shot run
retention holster with open top mag mag pouches: no penalty or bonus
ALS, SERPA, or Thumb Drive (or similar) holster without concealment: 0.5 second penalty (addition) per 6-shot run
open top holster without concealment: 3 second penalty (addition) per 6-shot run

If your range does not allow drawing from a holster, begin with the gun on a table with no round in the chamber (two in the magazine). On the start signal, pick up the gun, rack the slide, and shoot the drill. Reload from underneath concealment.


Please report the following when you post your results in this thread:

starting position (concealed, duty, open holster, or ready position)
type of holster (if applicable)
time and hits for string 1
time and hits for string 2
time and hits for string 3
aggregate score


[i]Training with firearms is an inherently dangerous activity. Be sure to follow all safety protocols when using firearms or practicing these drills. These drills are provided for information purposes only. Use at your own risk.

jthhapkido
12-26-2011, 03:05 PM
Target: 8" circle and 3x5 card (see here (http://pistol-training.com/wp-content/uploads/2007/09/fast-target.pdf) for a downloadable target; this target [i]must be printed on an 8.5x11 "legal" sheet of paper)


"8.5x11 legal"? Do you mean 8.5x14 legal? Or do you mean 8.5x11 letter?

BaiHu
12-26-2011, 03:14 PM
gun: HKP30L 9mm
starting position: Concealed under Fleece Comptac Straight Drop
time and hits for string 1: 7.67 C: 2.43/.65/3.21/.46/.44/.46
time and hits for string 2: 7.42 C: 2.49/.64/2.96/.44/.46/.42
time and hits for string 3: 7.93 -1B: 2.52/.70/3.14/.53/.50/.52
aggregate score: 24.02 (that's all 3 scores +1sec penalty for missing body shot, correct?)

As a side note, I dropped one string after 2 headshots, b/c I heard someone pull up to the range. There's no rule against it, but it is frowned upon to draw at the range. If no one else is their, it's okay, but...

DocGKR
12-26-2011, 03:16 PM
8.5 x 14 LEGAL size paper is necessary for the correct size FAST target.

Fortunately I was able to quickly sneak to the range on my day off today.

G17 w/RMR07 AIWB from Fricke Seraphim holster:

String 1: 5.33 sec clean
String 2: 4.97 sec with a missed head shot for an adjusted score of 6.97 sec.
String 3: 5.01 sec clean (My best ever clean run with a RMR Glock!)

jthhapkido
12-26-2011, 07:00 PM
Well, tried the FAST for the first time actually on the clock. Shot cold (On an old target, so there are a couple of older hits here and there marked with a black sharpie to differentiate between old hits, and the FAST runs.)

Gen 4 G17, Archangel AIWB with closed-front shirt
Run 1: 5.15 clean
Run 2: 5.30 -2H, -1B (!) = 10.30 (BLEH!)
Run 3: 4.89 clean
Aggregate Time: 20.34

...not sure what happened in the middle run other than apparently my trigger control took a break. [sigh] I was so disgusted with my shooting on that run that I didn't read the breakdown from the timer, so I don't know the draw/splits/reload times, just the overall.

-2H: One over, one under
-1B: pulled one under

Actually had a video camera with me this time, so I filmed the three runs. Sloppy shooting here and there. One of these days, I'll be on the eastern side of the country, and have to attend one of Todd's classes, and learn some accuracy.



http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6l3UtI28YpI&feature=plcp&context=C3c0fe5fUDOEgsToPDskIZw3zGV6rDlHCbAdWxWQWR

caleb
12-26-2011, 07:36 PM
I just received one of the Blade-tech WRS holsters (http://blade-tech.com/RH-WRS-DUTY-HOLSTER-DOH-ASR-pr-1153.html) for T&E, I assume this would fall into the "retention holster" category where there's no penalty to shoot it since it's a closed top?

Shenaniguns
12-26-2011, 09:50 PM
I just received one of the Blade-tech WRS holsters (http://blade-tech.com/RH-WRS-DUTY-HOLSTER-DOH-ASR-pr-1153.html) for T&E, I assume this would fall into the "retention holster" category where there's no penalty to shoot it since it's a closed top?


That is the holster I broke in two of Todd's classes where the belt attachment holds the belt at its desired width.

ToddG
12-26-2011, 10:30 PM
jth -- I didn't fix it because it was never broken and it's just a coincidence that the original post was edited but it always said 8.5x14 and you can't prove otherwise! (i.e., thanks... fixed it)

caleb -- I'd have to see one and play with it to make a ruling. Essentially, if the "retention" disengages simply by acquiring your firing grip like the ALS and SERPA then it gets a penalty.

EmanP
12-26-2011, 11:46 PM
I was assuming that this was intended to be shot cold. And it was plenty cold outside. Jacket for concealment from a Ready Tac holster and mag pouch, Gen 3 G17.
4.99 Missed 1 head and 2 body = 8.99
4.85
4.82 Missed 1 body = 5.82
Total 19.66

http://desmond.imageshack.us/Himg15/scaled.php?server=15&filename=readytaccold.jpg&res=medium

Don't really know what happend on the 1st one. Opps. Some people I know say that the Rady Tac holster isn't a carry holster although I do in the winter so I grabbed a buddies Raven (don't have one for a 17 myself yet but gotta get one). Seemed to hold the gun way up higher and easier to get to. I also had the benifit of having just shot it 3 times. The 3rd string here I got a way bad grip on the gun and almost threw my first shot but lost it on the second. Grip fixed post reload.
4.86
4.53
5.17 Missed 1 head
Total 16.56

http://desmond.imageshack.us/Himg100/scaled.php?server=100&filename=ravenholster.jpg&res=medium

JFK
12-28-2011, 12:33 AM
This is the first time I have tried the FAST with my P30. I am liking the progress. I seem about .5 - 1 second slower than my M&P but am not dropping as many shots. I feel like I am progressing well and will like the P30 in the long run. I have only run about 500 rounds through it so far.

Run 1 8.01 clean
Run 2 7.56 clean
Run 3 7.45 -1 body 8.45 total

Total 23.02

http://farm8.staticflickr.com/7019/6586356505_7020f0d872.jpg

ToddG
12-28-2011, 01:12 AM
(shot as the classifier at the inaugural KSTG match at the NRA Range)

1st run, 4.50 clean

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4B0jT7v3_VI

2nd run, 5.71 clean (trigger safety did not depress on initial grip, needed to adjust finger before firing)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IHwuT1FuOpQ

3rd run, 4.37 clean

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BkCAzWC1i3A

Total: 14.58

Glock G17 gen4
CCC Shaggy aiwb holster and CCC Basic Mag Carrier pouch
Federal 124+p HST
Crimson Trace LG-850 Lasergrip

C45P312
12-28-2011, 06:29 AM
G17 in 6004

Run 1: 5.85 clean
Run 2: 5.92 clean
Run 3: 5.91 clean
Total: 17.68 clean

Shot cold last night after work. I'm usually closer to the 5 second mark than the 6. Not this time though. At least they were clean.

Dr. No
12-28-2011, 05:25 PM
I finally made it to the range to get to play. Man I've been jonesing to try these out. :)

4.76 (1.47, .54, 2.16, .20 .21 .18) clean
4.85 (1.41, .56, 2.29, .20 .20 .19) -1
4.34 (1.44, .47, 1.84, .20 .20 .19) clean

Part of what kills me is the way I ride the gun always prevents the slide from holding open on the last round, forcing me to have to rack the gun. I'd say I could easily lose .5-.75 off my time if I fix that. I think I'm finally going to recruit my buddy with a grinder and take some material off the USP slide stop.

I did shoot it unconcealed from my USPSA Limited rig, so I get some penalties..
HK USP .40 : 13.95 + 10s penalties = 23.95 agg

A

JV
12-28-2011, 05:44 PM
CCC Shaggy
Gen4 Glock 19
Untucked Polo

I shot the first two at the start of my range session (cold), and the last one towards the end:



5.78 Clean 1.61 1.00 2.42 0.25 0.26 0.24
5.53 -1B 1.68 0.67 2.27 0.23 0.22 0.46
5.03 Clean 1.60 0.63 2.13 0.23 0.22 0.22

Raw Total: 16.34
Corrected Total: 17.34

LOKNLOD
12-28-2011, 10:33 PM
Ever have one of those range days that you should have abandoned and went home? I was having one of those today, but stayed and shot this anyway :rolleyes: If I thought I would have another chance this week, I would have waited.

P30 LEM from Shaggy and DGL RC pouch under a shirt.


Run 1 - 8.67 clean
Run 2 - 7.79 clean
Run 3 - 6.58 -1H, -1B -- 9.58
total = 26.04

Gideon_459
12-29-2011, 04:55 PM
USP 9 concealed from a CCC shaggy

7.35 -1h 9.35
7.53 -1h 9.53
6.25 clean
Total: 25.13

First two runs were rough but everything clicked on number 3.

EricP
12-29-2011, 05:46 PM
Ever have one of those range days that you should have abandoned and went home? I was having one of those today, but stayed and shot this anyway :rolleyes:


Glock 19 in a Comp-Tac Infidel under a fleece sweat shirt.

7.43 (2.59, 0.83, 2.92, 0.39, 0.36, 0.34) -1 Head
7.29 (2.62, 0.97, 2.77, 0.30, 0.30, 0.31) -1 Head and -1 Body
7.49 (Pressed GO instead of review and decided to call it a day) -1 Body

Adjusted time: 28.21

caleb
12-29-2011, 10:17 PM
Glock 21, concealed under IDPA vest from Comp-Tac paddle holster.

Run 1: 5.69 - clean
Run 2: 4.94 - clean
Run 3: 4.89 - down 1 body
Total: 15.52

I was so pissed after dropping that body shot, because I knew had three clean runs in the bag, and I just overprepped the trigger on my first shot after the reload. I also deeply regret now not being able to make it to Virginia for the Pan-Galactic KSTG Championship, because with a score like that I would have been able to put another "Master class" tag on my resume. C'est la vie.

I did get video of the three runs though; because hey, why not? You can see clearly on the first run what killed me; I missed the slide release on the reload and had to slightly shift my grip to hit it.


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-MQakpnb55M

UTfoiler
12-30-2011, 10:53 AM
Sig P226 9mm, gun unloaded on table

Run 1 8.14 clean
Run 2 7.68 Missed 1 head 2 body, total 11.68
Run 3 8.07 clean
Total = 27.89

Argus
12-30-2011, 01:39 PM
G19 from concealment (untucked closed front shirt w/ open zip up fleece jacket on top); Comp-Tac Infidel at 3:00

Run 1 7.22 -1h -1b (total 10.22)
Run 2 8.25 clean
Run 3 7.72 -1h -1b (total 10.72)

Total = 29.19

Wearing 2 layers of cover garments slowed me down noticeably, especially on the reloads. I think I was rushing my shots a bit, knowing I was behind from the slower draws and reloads; all 4 misses were the first shot on the target. For run 2, I forced myself to slow down and be more deliberate and I shot it clean; but I still got my magazine tangled up in my cover garments on the reload. For run 3 I tried speeding back up a bit and ended up missing again.

I definitely need to do more dryfire practice of draws and reloads wearing multiple layers, as I am normally dressed this way in the colder months.

ToddG
12-30-2011, 01:51 PM
I definitely need to do more dryfire practice of draws and reloads wearing multiple layers, as I am normally dressed this way in the colder months.

Or just cheat, if wardrobe and weather allow. I always keep the layer closest to the gun the longest garment. So if I grab it and rip, it moves everything else above it out of the way. If your outer garment is longer than the inner, then you should position your gun outside the inner garment (tuck your shirt/sweater in). Then before removing your jacket you just untuck the shirt so everything stays concealed.

Argus
12-30-2011, 02:11 PM
Or just cheat, if wardrobe and weather allow. I always keep the layer closest to the gun the longest garment. So if I grab it and rip, it moves everything else above it out of the way. If your outer garment is longer than the inner, then you should position your gun outside the inner garment (tuck your shirt/sweater in). Then before removing your jacket you just untuck the shirt so everything stays concealed.

Todd, thanks very much for the tip; I will definitely need to see if I can make this work with my wardrobe. Either way, I still need to do a lot more dryfire practice...

Bill Nesbitt
12-30-2011, 02:38 PM
Glock 17 Gen 3.

Concealed: Cabela's Windstopper sweater, open front
Comp-Tac Paddle holster. 3 O'clock.
1: 6.69 clean
2: 6.27 clean
3: 5.86 -1 H, -1 B
aggregate: 21.82

I hate 3x5 cards. :)

I don't shoot that small of a target often. So I ran 100 rounds of practice on them. I can hit them better now. ;)

Bill

OrigamiAK
12-30-2011, 03:46 PM
Shot it cold this time.

Concealed, AIWB, closed-front shirt, stock G34

1: 1.41/.50/1.91/.25/.24/.22 = 4.53 clean
2: 1.32/.56/2.41/.25/.22/.21 = 4.97 clean
3: 1.29/.47/2.22/.22/.22/.21 = 4.63 -1 H, -1 B = 7.63

Total time: 17.29

http://farm8.staticflickr.com/7172/6602667613_8070803a89.jpg (http://www.flickr.com/photos/52790396@N08/6602667613/) FASTx3 (http://www.flickr.com/photos/52790396@N08/6602667613/) by OrigamiAK (http://www.flickr.com/people/52790396@N08/), on Flickr

I've been making a real mental effort to shoot clean. Was disappointed to not shoot it clean three times consecutively, but I usually don't shoot it clean across three attempts, so this is not really a surprise. I was very happy to shoot sub-5 clean on the true cold attempt though.

I actually shot this a couple days ago, took a picture, but misplaced my paper where I wrote the times down. Went to the range today to reshoot it, found the paper in my range box, and worked on shots to the 3x5 card instead. The 3x5 shots were interesting...I'll address those somewhere other than this thread.

Pennzoil
12-30-2011, 06:36 PM
Concealed AIWB P2000 V2 under closed front shirt. Shot Cold
o time and hits for string 1 7.97 C
o time and hits for string 2 7.94 C
o time and hits for string 3 7.40 -1 Body adjusted score of 8.40
o aggregate score 24.31
http://img189.imageshack.us/img189/7481/dotw13.jpg

This is the second week since I've gone to P2000 only(had it around but needed a holster) and I'm happy with how I did on this drill. Compared to my M&P 9FS with FSS kit I'd been using I'm 1.5 seconds (unadjusted) slower currently but perform way better on my 3x5 hits so I'm actually beating my average aggregate M&P score. My first shot/second shot are already the same splits as I was getting with the M&P. I'm losing the time at my reload and splits on 8"circle. I'm getting used to the new magazine release and mess up my grip occasionally like I did in string 3 to miss once and put one on the line barely.

I took a video of the 3 consecutive runs but my IPhone 4S decided to focus on the table instead of me :mad: so obviously my new phone wasn't very impressed.

NETim
12-30-2011, 08:22 PM
Since I preach "Your ego is not your amigo" here's my attempt today.

Some kind of 5" 1911 in .45. Sparks VMII from concealment (fairly light jacket.)

http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-ut2baxEMYFY/Tv5ulaUY2zI/AAAAAAAAAtA/NkZU_izf2Xs/s320/CCF30122011_00000.jpg

All shots in. The blowout in the lower RH corner was from ripping off the target off the backer in a hurry.

1) 10.10
2) 11.34
3) 13.84

35.28 aggregate

You speed demons just amaze me. :)

I might have time for other runs this weekend, weather and time permitting. This is fairly representative of how it goes for me right now.

CCT125US
12-30-2011, 09:20 PM
* starting position: AIWB from under a hoody
* type of holster: comp tac 2 o' clock
* time and hits for string 1: 5.65 2.06 / .53 / 2.05 / .38 / .33 / .30
* time and hits for string 2: 5.68 2.11 / .57 / 1.99 / .38 / .32 / .31
* time and hits for string 3: 5.58 1.96 / .65 / 2.01 / .35 / .32 / .29
* aggregate score: 16.91

All hits with 5.58 as a new personal best for me on the FAST... Time to first hit needs work, but I am very pleased with my sub 2 sec reload on string 2. My splits also need work, I just can't seem to consistently see faster than .30

I also worked on 2H, SHO, and WHO at 50' on the 3x5 and got 100% hits out of 30 rds

zml342
12-31-2011, 11:07 AM
* starting position: P30 concealed AIWB from under a tshirt
* type of holster: comp tac infidel
* time and hits for string 1: 6.77 - 2.26/.84/2.54/.40/.40/.33 (-2H, -1B)
* time and hits for string 2: 7.14 - 2.37/.97/2.53/.43/.46/.38 (-1H, -1B)
* time and hits for string 3: 6.70 - 2.30/.84/2.31/.46/.41/.38 (-1H)
* total score: 20.61
* aggregate score: 30.61

First off, that was not at all how I was expecting/hoping to perform. However, my biggest take away from this drill (and thinking back to the previous drills) is that I go way too fast. I am so worried about making a goal (<7sec clean) that I am not ready for, that I speed through the drill and miss. I unfortunately did not perform last weeks DotW due to work travel, but I think it would have helped a lot to put my skill level in to perspective.

I think my first task for 2012 is to see what skill level I am truly at and make more realistic goals to work on and build from there.

guymontag
12-31-2011, 11:29 AM
Walther P99 Concealed

1: 8.39(-1B)=9.39
2: 7.35
3: 6.71(-1H)=8.71
Aggregate=25.45

I think I need to inscribe 'visual patience' on the rear of the slide...

LittleLebowski
12-31-2011, 01:06 PM
Concealed Gen4 G19 from AIWB shaggy holster while at KSTG match. First run was clean, had an improperly staged mag for the second run, missed a shot for the third.

7.06
11.34
7.06

Total aggregate after accuracy penalties: 27.46

JSGlock34
12-31-2011, 03:07 PM
I also ran the FAST during the KSTG, using a GEN3 Glock 19 from a Raven Concealment Systems Phantom OWB holster.

6.72
6.01 (Clean)
5.82

After 7 points in penalties = 25.54

I also ran FAST for the first time with a Trijicon RMR equipped GEN3 G17 this weekend, using a Comp-Tac OWB holster. Results are less than inspiring...

6.83 (-1 Head) = 8.83 2.32/.72/2.74/.36/.37/.32
7.21 (-1 Head) = 9.21 2.44/.85/2.75/.37/.42/.38

The RMR is most decidedly different - as many have noted it is slower to pick up the dot during the press out and there is an offset that I haven't quite mastered (hence the dropped head shots). On the other hand, I fired a terrific 25 yard group to zero the pistol - much better than I've ever managed with irons. The RMR Glock is my science project for 2012 - we'll see how well it goes...

caleb
12-31-2011, 03:19 PM
Honestly, if they were legal for IDPA competition I'd have an RMR on my gun and shoot that for a year just to see the difference.

ToddG
01-01-2012, 07:47 AM
Just a reminder for the folks reporting their scores from KSTG: It's possible to earn a lot more penalties shooting it according to KSTG rules than according to "normal F.A.S.T." rules.

Normally, a miss to the 3x5 is +2sec regardless of whether you miss by an inch or a mile. In KSTG, if you fail to hit the 6x6 head box on the head shots, the penalty per miss increases to 5sec.

The normal penalty for missing the 8" is 1sec. In KSTG, if you miss far enough to hit the D-zone, it's +3sec and if you hit the head box or miss the target altogether it is +5sec.

Stuffbreaker
01-01-2012, 05:58 PM
HK P30LS 9mm, concealed under untucked T-shirt, CBST IWB at 3:30


Run 1: 5.45 - clean
Run 2: 5.36 - clean
Run 3: 5.06 - down 1 body
Raw Time: 15.87
Total Score: 16.87

It has been about three weeks since my last FAST. My comfort zone is in the 5.2 to 5.5 second range. The wheels fall off when I push the 5.0 second envelope, so I kept myself in check for this week's DotW. FAST is an excellent diagnostic tool for me. My reloads rarely break 2.1 seconds, so work in that area will have the biggest influence on my times. My splits in the body zone are nothing to write home about, either - usually 0.24 to 0.30 seconds. More Bill Drills and dry fire reloads are in order.

Fly320s
01-02-2012, 10:20 AM
M&P 9mm full size. Comp-Tac belt holster under a jacket.

1. 2.22 .46 1.80 .63 .38 .35 6.15 clean. 6.15

2. 2.24 .57 2.50 .28 .27 .25 6.11 +1.00. 7.11

3. 2.34 .58 2.37 .36 .32 .29 6.26 clean 6.26

Total time = 19.52

CraigBos
01-02-2012, 04:21 PM
Due to poor planning, this took me two range visits, but here it is.


starting position: From the bench, no draws
type of holster: N/A
time and hits for string 1: 17 sec, 2 misses on 3x5, one miss on the 8" circle --> 22 sec
time and hits for string 2: 15.2 sec, 2 misses on 3x5, one miss on 8" --> 20.2 sec
time and hits for string 3: 17 sec, 1 miss on 3x5, clean on 8" --> 19 sec
aggregate score: 61.2 sec


It's all about baselining...

Corey
01-02-2012, 05:33 PM
M&P 9mm FS, Blade-Tech IDPA holster, concealed under a fleece jacket.

First run: 6.48, -2 body, 8.48 seconds. Lost track of the front sight.
Second run: 6.51 clean
Third run: 6.52 clean

Total time with penalties: 21.51 seconds

The runs look consistent until you see the splits. If I was fast on the head, then I had problems on the reload, or if I was slow on the head, I managed to make it up on the body. I need to put all the pieces together in a single run someday.

JConn
01-02-2012, 08:27 PM
Gen 3 Glock 19. Raven lc phantom iwb @ 330. Concealed under a closed front hoodie

Run 1 7.03 -2H
Run 2 6.76 clean
Run 3 6.26 clean

Total time: 11.03+ 6.76+ 6.26 = 24.05

NickA
01-02-2012, 09:44 PM
Gen 3 G19, CCC Shaggy, concealed under t-shirt
7. 38, -1h = 9.38
6. 83, -1h = 8.83
8. 24, -1h, -1b= 11.24
Total: 29.45


Sent from my PC36100 using Tapatalk

fuse
01-02-2012, 09:57 PM
this was the first thing I shot in over 30 days. it doesn't get any more cold than that.

gen3 G17 w/grip reduction, shaggy AIWB, old baggy assed hoodie

1.
6.27 -1H, -2B = 10.27

I originally thought both my headshots were good, but while pasting my missed body shots discovered one of the headshots was just a hair low and not breaking the black line of the headbox. pretty disappointing, as I was hoping I could shoot this clean and under 7 seconds after being away from the pistol for over a month. I do feel good about the placement of the misses, as all 3 were all well within the bowling pin of the PTC target, and would have all been pretty good hits on an adversary (that was facing straight at me). gotta stay positive.

2.
5.80 -1B = 6.80

This one felt much better. reload was much smoother. missed body shot was a tad high and right.

3.
5.96 clean

annnnnnndd we're back.


total = 23.03

ToddG
01-03-2012, 10:40 AM
Week 13 is CLOSED.
Week 14 (http://pistol-forum.com/showthread.php?2641-Week-14-iHack) has been published.